THE UNFCCC (2016b) Non-state actors` zone for the climate change platform. climateaction.unfccc.int/ In the run-up to COP21, the parties have published their national contributions (INDC), which could be seen as national climate plans and, above all, as the foundations of the new climate regime (UNFCCC 2016a). Despite the heterogeneity of the AOSIS Member States (both the least developed countries (LDCs) and the richest countries, not all islands are very sensitive) and their low share in global greenhouse gas emissions (Hoad 2015), most have adopted ambitious reduction targets in their NDCs. This reflects AOSIS`s commitment to transforming its economies into low-carbon economies and strengthening collective ambitions. Highlighting their limited flexibility in mitigation is also a way for small islands to highlight their adaptation needs and, therefore, financial arrangements for adaptable measures to address the negative effects of climate change, such as sea level rise (Ashe et al. 1999). by Égueda Corneloup I, Mol APJ (2014) Small island developing states and international climate change negotiations: the power of moral “leadership.” Int About Agreements: Polit Law Econ 14 (3): 281-297. doi.org/10.1007/s10784-013-9227 SE change poses an existential threat to small island developing states (SIDS). They have played a leading role in raising awareness of climate change on the international stage and have advocated for strong action on climate change, including through the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS). Despite their heterogeneity, they managed to build a common diplomatic discourse and adopt an influence strategy, mobilizing talented political leaders, negotiators and advisors. Small island states were a decisive group in the negotiating phase until the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21) and the entry into force of the Paris Agreement. SIDS has been able to secure its particular conditions as volcanic countries, has demonstrated its ability to increase its ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to achieve an ambitious long-term temperature target of limiting global warming to less than 1.5 degrees Celsius, and has advanced the complex debate on losses and damage. Small island states face major challenges in advancing their leadership role in climate change: ensuring the introvert of these most vulnerable countries and increasing their influence inside and outside climate change negotiations.
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